Abduction, Reason and Science - Processes of Discovery and by L. Magnani

By L. Magnani

This booklet ties jointly the worries of philosophers of technology and AI researchers, exhibiting for instance the connections among clinical pondering and health worker platforms. It lays out an invaluable basic framework for dialogue of various different types of abduction. It develops very important rules approximately elements of abductive reasoning which were really ignored in cognitive technological know-how, together with using visible and temporal representations and the position of abduction within the withdrawal of hypotheses.

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A most common example of creative abduction is the usual experience people have of solving problems in geometry in a model-based way trying to devise proofs using diagrams and illustrations: of course the attribute of creativity we give the abduction in this case does not mean that it has never been made before by anyone or that it is original in the history of some knowledge. Hence we have to say that theoretical model-based abductions also operate in deductive reasoning (see Figure 6 above). Following Hintikka and Remes's analysis (1974) proofs of general implication in fIrst order logic need the use of instantiation rules by which "new" individuals are introduced, so they are "ampliative".

Perception, in fact, is a vehicle for the instantaneous retrieval of knowledge that was previously structured in our mind through inferential processes. Peirce says: "Abductive inference shades into perceptual judgment without any sharp line of demarcation between them" (Peirce, 1955c, p. 304). By perception, knowledge constructions are so instantly reorganized that they become habitual and diffuse and do not need any further testing: "[... 37). Many visual stimuli - that can be considered the "premises" of the involved abduction - are ambiguous, yet people are adept at imposing order on them: "We readily form such hypotheses as that an obscurely seen face belongs to a friend of ours, because we can thereby explain what has been observed" (Thagard, 1988, p.

The fact that explanations usually are not complete but only furnish partial accounts of the pertinent evidence (Thagard and Shelley, 1997); 7. ] unknown at the time of the abduction, and even more so must the auxiliary data which help to explain them be unknown. Hence these future, so far unknown explananda, cannot be among the premises of an abductive inference" (Hintikka, 1998, p. 507), observations become real and explainable only by means of new hypotheses and theories, once discovered by abduction.

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