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Although cDNAs can be used for this, the proteins produced may be truncated or contained undesired sequences at their N-termini . The ideal way to generate proteome arrays is to clone intact open reading frames. Various methods are available for protein library display. In one, using DNA templates, the mRNAs are transcribed and translated in vitro; they can be assayed either on microtiter plates or on solid supports . Phage display technology is another possibility; in this case, the open reading frames are fused to gene encoding a phage coat protein.
In a proof of concept study, yeast extracts were incubated with cyclosporin A and hydrogen peroxide, to identify proteins whose oxidation was aﬀected by the drug . Ten proteins were found to be changed and two known targets of cyclosporin A, cyclophilin A and UDP-glucose-4-epimerase, were among them . Metabolomics These techniques are relatively new, and to our knowledge, they have not been applied yet to the study of drugs against parasites, but we think they could be useful as complementary approaches.
Moreover, changes in the molecule structure may aﬀect the pharmacophore, inﬂuencing the speciﬁcity or even abolishing drug–protein interactions . This approach was used to look for targets of the antimalarial quinoline drugs primaquine and hydroxychloroquine; ATP served as a control . After incubation of cell extracts with the drugs, bound to sepharose, the matrix was washed. Then, the bound proteins were eluted using the relevant drug; in addition, elution with other quinolines, such as chloroquine, meﬂoquine, quinacrine, and quinine, were performed.