An Introduction to Microbiology. Pharmaceutical Monographs by W. B. Hugo, J. B. Stenlake

By W. B. Hugo, J. B. Stenlake

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Conversely the mutation might be lethal, depriving the organism of an essential metabolic activity, thus resulting in death. Treatment by X-rays and mutagenic chemicals such as nitrogen 32 THE BACTERIAL CELL mustard (di-(2-chloroethyl)methylamine) has been used to produce artificially new mutants of both bacteria and moulds and to obtain strains of these organisms with desired properties. Mutants of the mould PĂ©nicillium chrysogenum have been produced which give much higher yields of penicillin and at the same time do not produce the unwanted yellow pigment associated with the original strain.

The normal aerobic medium used to study decomposition of sugars by aerobes and facultative organisms can be thus adapted to studying their decomposition by anaerobic organisms. (/) Cooked meat. Sufficient minced, cooked, ox-heart muscle is added to a conventional nutrient broth dispensed in a screwcapped container of 30 ml capacity so as to form a 1 -5 cm deep layer at the bottom of the liquid. Muscle tissue contains reducing systems. One system consists of the reduction brought about by the irreversible oxidation of lipids, the other the reversible parahaematin-haemochromogen system.

It should not be overlooked, however, that if amino acids or growth factors or a natural source of growth factors, such as yeast 49 AN INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY extract, are added to a minimal medium, a greater rate of growth and a shorter generation time is usually obtained. Another factor to be borne in mind is that even if chemicals of analytical reagent grade are used to prepare the medium, these chemicals will contain as impurity trace elements which may be in sufficient quantity to provide the necessary amount for growth, so that in this sense the medium is not completely defined.

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