Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, by Xiaoyuan Tu

By Xiaoyuan Tu

After approximately part a century of analysis, the Holy Grail of the ?eld of paintings- cial intelligence (AI) continues to be a entire computational version in a position to emulating the terrific talents of animals, together with locomotion, p- ception, habit, manipulation, studying, and cognition. the great modeling of upper animals –humans and different primates –remains elusive; even if, the examine documented during this monograph achieves not anything under a sensible laptop version of sure species of decrease animals which are on no account trivial of their complexity. mentioned herein is the 1996 ACM Doctoral Dissertation Award profitable paintings of Xiaoyuan Tu, which she performed within the division of desktop technology on the college of Toronto. Tu provides “arti?cial ?shes”, a rema- capable computational version of widely used marine animals of their ordinary habitat. initially conceived within the context of special effects, Tu’s is thus far the single PhD dissertation from this significant sub?eld of desktop technological know-how (and the single thesis from a Canadian collage) to win the coveted ACM award.

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2) must be integrated over time. g. executing a left turn to avoid a sudden dynamic obstacle before completing a right turn). Therefore, the stability of the numerical solution is an important consideration. We employ a simple, numerically stable, semi-implicit Euler method. The system of equations of motion Eq. 4) where M, C and K are the mass, damping and stiffness matrices, respectively. Matrix M is a constant diagonal matrix with mi on the main diagonal, while C and K are time-dependent nondiagonal matrices.

For example, using our current numbering scheme, nA = 7 (Fig. 6), however if we number node 22 as node 1 (referring to Fig. 2), nA = n − 1 = 22. Thus in general, one should number the nodes in such a way that all connections are as local as possible. We can frequently determine a reasonable nodal point numbering by inspection. 2 Algorithm Outline and Discussion An outline of our semi-implicit simulation algorithm is as follows: Initial calculations at t = 0: ˙ 0 and X ¨ 0. 1. Initialize X0 , X 2.

2ˆ r2 , sˆ2 )} results in a slower-swimming fish. Fig. 8a and Fig. 6 Note the resemblance between the shape of the artificial fish during swimming and that of a natural fish during swimming shown in Fig. 8b. Most fishes use their anterior muscles for turning and, up to the limit of the fish’s physical strength, the turn angle is approximately proportional to the degree and speed of the anterior bend [61]. The artificial fish turns by contracting and relaxing the muscles of the turning segments (see Fig.

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