By Michel Ter Hark (auth.)
Wittgenstein's aphoristic variety holds nice attraction, but additionally an outstanding possibility: the reader is apt to glean an excessive amount of from a unmarried fragment and too little from the fragments as a complete. In my first confron tations with the Philosophical Investigations i used to be any such reader, and so, it became out, have been many of the writers on Wittgenstein's later philosophy. Wittgenstein's amazing skill to assemble many elements of his notion in a single fragment is absolutely exploited within the serious literature; yet not often any recognition is paid to the relationship with different fragments, not to mention to the various hitherto unpublished manuscripts of which the Philosophical Investigations is the ultimate product. the results of this fragmentary and ahistorical method of Wittgenstein's later paintings is a bunch of contradictory interpretations. What Wittgenstein fairly desired to say continues to be insufficiently transparent. evaluations also are strongly divided concerning the worth of his paintings. a few authors were inspired by way of his aphorisms and rhetorical inquiries to brush off the complete Cartesian culture or to halt new routine in linguistics or psychology; others, exasperated, reject his philo sophy as anti-scientific conceptual conservatism. After consulting unpublished notebooks and manuscripts which Wittgenstein wrote among 1929 and 1951, I grew to become a really varied reader. Wittgenstein became out to be one of those Leonardo da Vinci, who pursued a kind from which each and every signal of chisel ling, each try out at development, were effaced.
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Extra info for Beyond the Inner and the Outer: Wittgenstein’s Philosophy of Psychology
Otherwise actions would no longer be distinct from conditioned responses or reflexes. Onceonly, compulsive, gratuitous, or stereotype reactions would have to be called rule-guided too. Wittgenstein takes a very different view. In Philosophical Investigations, § 199 he emphasizes that one person cannot make a statement or give an order only once in his life. Rule-guided behaviour is not random, spontaneous behaviour or behaviour which shows no hesitation whatsoever. He is very clear about this in MS 165.
As children we acquire the rules for the meaning of concepts through our upbringing and education. A variation of Philosophical Investigations, § 199 is also 38 MICHEL TER HARK illustrative here. Obeying a rule, he says in § 199, is a 'Gepflogenheit' and between parentheses he adds, a custom, an institution. In MS 180a 'Gepflogenheit' is followed only by 'iibungen', that is, by practical exercises. Characteristic (b) already suggests that playing a language-game according to rules is a normative activity; characteristic (c) leaves no doubt whatsoever on this point.
To adduce a reason for something means that this reason meets a certain standard determining what a right reason is. Rule-guided practices, language-games, or forms of life are such normative standards on the basis of which we can distinguish between founded and unfounded. The practice or standard itself is neither founded nor unfounded (d. PI, § 482). The essential idea that 'the standard has no grounds' (PI, § 482) is formulated by Wittgenstein as early as 1932 in MS 113. Straight after the first draft of § 482 Wittgenstein formulates his idea even more explicitly: 'Why do you assume that he will be in a better mood because I tell you that he has eaten?