By Norman H. Baynes, H.St.L.B. Moss
The booklet of this advent to east Roman civilization has been defined as an important occasion within the background of Byzantine reviews in England. The ebook includes chapters by means of experts of foreign recognition on all elements of Byzantine tradition, and Professor Baynes's brief advent brilliantly sums up the essence of Byzantium and describes what it gave to the area. Contents: The background of the Byzantine Empire : an summary -- the commercial lifetime of the Byzantine Empire : inhabitants, agriculture, undefined, trade / André M. Andréadès -- Public funds : forex, public expenditure, price range, public profit / André M. Andréadès -- The Byzantine church / Henri Grégoire -- Byzantine monasticism / Hippolyte Delehaye -- Byzantine paintings / Charles Diehl -- Byzantine schooling / Georgina Buckler -- Byzantine literature / F.H. Marshall -- The Greek language within the Byzantine interval / R.M. Dawkins -- The emperor and the imperial management / Wilhelm Ensslin -- Byzantium and Islam / A.A. Vasiliev -- The Byzantine inheritance in South-eastern Europe / William Miller -- Byzantium and Slavs / Steven Runciman -- The Byzantine inheritance in Russia / Baron Meyendorff and Norman H. Baynes. Professor Norman Hepburn Baynes (1877-1961) was once a famous British historian of the Byzantine Empire.
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Extra resources for Byzantium: An Introduction to East Roman Civilization (Oxford Paperbacks)
For nine centuries the mountain kingdom of Armenia had been a bone of contention between Rome and the successive rulers of Hither Asia. It had been partitioned at intervals into spheres of influence; its princes had been supported in turn, or its territories temporarily annexed, by the rival Empires. From the accession of the Macedonian dynasty dates the beginning of its Golden Age, when the ascendancy of the grea~ Bagratid family enabled. it to assert a large measure of mdependence for two glonous centuries.
The Western provinces of Islam-Spain, North Africa, and Egypt-threw off in turn their political allegiance to Bagdad, and powerful rulers in Syria and Mesopotamia eventually rendered themselves independent of the Caliph. Asia Minor was vitally affected by these changes. lts traditional defences were two. In the south the formidable passes of the Taurus and Anti-Taurus had been successfully held by the Byzantines against repeated Saracen inroads. In the north control of the Armenian massif was necessary for any permanent conquest of the Anatolian hinterland.
Necessarily antimilitarist (for the great landowners of Asia Minor, with the levies of their tenants, formed the military caste), it aimed at decreasing the influence of the army. Expenses were cut down, regardless of defensive needs. The frontiers were denuded of troops, and their commanders could hope for no advancement at Court. The fatal consequences of this policy were soon apparent. The era of Byzantine reconquest had ended in I 043, when Maniakes, the brilliant general who had triumphed on the Euphrates and even for a brief moment held Sicily, was goaded i11to rebellion and perished in Macedonia, a victim of the suspicion of unwarlike rulers.