Cardiovascular Anesthesia by Carol L. Lake M.D. (auth.)

By Carol L. Lake M.D. (auth.)

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Systolic Time Intervals (STIs) A. "h ~ I , I lL ~ A". ;,... I B. ~~ 33 tI ~ STls measure the sequential phases of left ventricular systole. They are determined from simultaneous high-speed recordings of the ECG, phonocardiogram, and carotid arterial pulse tracing (97). They can be measured echocardiographically (12). Three principal measurements are made: 1. ""~"",- c. Systolic Time Intervals (STIs) .... ,. I I tole, measured as the interval from the onset of the QRS complex to the closure of the aortic valve (8 2); 2.

15 A left coronary angiogram showing the anterior descending (black arrow) and circumflex coronary arteries (white arrow) in the RAO projection. (Photograph courtesy of Dr. ) is down and the distal coronary tree can be visualized. 15). The anterior descending gives off a large septal perforator branch which supplies the interventricular septum and a number of diagonal branches. The circumflex artery gives rise to a left atrial circumflex and a variable number of marginal arteries. 16). 16 A right coronary angiogram in the LAO projection.

New York, Grune & Stratton, 1976. ) systolic buckling of the mitral leaflets or a pansystolic, hammocklike posterior movement of the valve. Only two of the three aortic leaflets are usually seen on echocardiography. They separate widely in a boxlike motion. 9) (126). Two- Dimensional Echocardiography (2D Echo) A 2D echo gives a larger, wedge-shaped image of the heart. The more complicated 2D transducer is larger and therefore more difficult to fit into the intercostal spaces, limiting the views.

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