By Eugene C. Toy, Gary C. Rosenfeld, David S. Loose, Donald Briscoe
Genuine lifestyles scientific circumstances for the elemental Sciences and USMLE Step 1 you wish publicity to scientific instances to go direction assessments and ace the USMLE Step 1. Case documents: Pharmacology offers fifty three real-life scientific instances that illustrate crucial ideas in pharmacology. every one case contains an easy-to-understand dialogue correlated to key easy technological know-how ideas, definitions of keyword phrases, pharmacology pearls, and USMLE-style evaluate questions. With this interactive approach, you will study rather than memorize. This moment version grants: fifty three medical situations, each one with USMLE-style questions scientific pearls that spotlight key recommendations Primer on the right way to strategy scientific difficulties confirmed studying procedure that improves your shelf examination ratings
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Genuine existence scientific situations for the elemental Sciences and USMLE Step 1 you would like publicity to scientific circumstances to go direction assessments and ace the USMLE Step 1. Case records: Pharmacology offers fifty three real-life scientific circumstances that illustrate crucial thoughts in pharmacology. every one case contains an easy-to-understand dialogue correlated to key uncomplicated technology suggestions, definitions of key phrases, pharmacology pearls, and USMLE-style overview questions.
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Additional resources for Case Files: Pharmacology (Lange Case Files), 2nd edition
Contrast the actions and effects of direct and indirect stimulation of muscarinic cholinoreceptors. List the therapeutic uses of parasympathomimetic agents. List the adverse effects of parasympathomimetic agents. CLINICAL CASES 23 Definitions Parasympathetic nervous system: An anatomic division of the autonomic nervous system (the other is the sympathetic nervous system) that originates in nuclei of the CNS. Preganglionic fibers exit through cranial and sacral spinal nerves to synapse via short postganglionic nerve fibers on ganglia, many of which are in the organs they innervate.
The use of a direct-acting muscarinic agonist such as pilocarpine to treat open-angle glaucoma is now not common due to its numerous side effects, the need to administer it up to four times per day, and the availability of other agents. Prostaglandin analogs such as latanoprost are now considered first-line therapy for this condition followed by β-adrenoceptor agonists. APPROACH TO MUSCARINIC CHOLINOMIMETIC AGENTS Objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. Be able to list the receptors of the parasympathetic nervous system.
1] A. α1-Adrenoceptors mediate vasoconstriction in many vascular beds. In skeletal muscle, epinephrine can act at β2-adrenoceptors to cause vasodilation. 2] D. Epinephrine acts on β2-adrenoceptors to cause smooth muscle relaxation of bronchi resulting in bronchodilation. , albuterol). 3] A. Epinephrine activates α1-adrenoceptors to cause a release of intracellular stored Ca2+ and β1- and β2-adrenoceptors to activate adenylyl cyclase. 4] D. Epinephrine activation of β1-adrenoceptors results in an increase in heart rate.