Causal Powers: Theory of Natural Necessity by Rom Harré, Edward H. Madden

By Rom Harré, Edward H. Madden

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And the term ``suspension'' is derived from the fact of the mind being held up or ``suspended'' so that it neither affirms nor denies anything owing to the equipollence of the matters in question. [. ] When we say ``To every argument an equal argument is opposed,'' we mean ``to every argument'' that has been investigated by us, and the word ``argument'' we use not in its simple sense, but of that which establishes a point dogmatically (that is to say with reference to what is non-evident) and establishes it by any method, and not necessarily by means of premisses and a conclusion.

And when we question whether the underlying object is such as it appears, we grant the fact that it appears, and our doubt does not concern the appearance itself but the account given of that appearance ± and that is a different thing from questioning the appearance itself. For example, honey appears to us to be sweet (and this we grant, for we perceive sweetness through the senses), but whether it is also sweet in its essence is for us a matter of doubt, since this is not an appearance but a judgement regarding the appearance.

His use of these sources appears to be quite uncritical, and, for this reason, his accuracy has been frequently questioned. His text was recovered and translated into Latin in the fifteenth century and was used as an authority by many subsequent writers. Even if nothing he says about Pyrrho is true, the ideas he presents have had extraordinary influence on modern thought. Pyrrho is thought to have lived in the fourth century bce. It seems that he wrote nothing, and there is little reliable information about him.

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