By John E. Obrzut and George W. Hynd (Eds.)
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Additional resources for Child Neuropsychology. Clinical Practice
Speech Disorders Developmental speech disorders in children tend to fall into three broad areas. These areas include speech-sound disorders (articulation), voice problems, and speech dysfluencies. Speech-sound disorders refer to the mispronunciation of oral speech sounds. At a more complex level, this group of disorders has been included within the area of phonology, which is concerned with the structure and function of sound systems within language (Hyman, 1975). Procedures for conceptualizing, classifying, and assessing phonological disorders have been cogently outlined by Shriberg and Kwiatkowski (1982).
These children experience primary deficiencies in perceiving whole words as gestalts, and may even overphoneticize in their word decoding. , 1975), perhaps because of the emphasis on auditory and linguistic strategies in traditional classroom instruction. , 1975). 36 Stephen R. Hooper and Thomas A. Boyd TABLE 1 Statistical and clinical studies investigating subtypes of learning disabilities Date Investigator(s) 1963 Kinsbourne & Warrington 1964 Quiros 1966 Bannatyne 1967 Johnson & Myklebust 1968 Bateman 1970 Boder 1970 Ingram, Mason, & Blackburn 1971 Rourke, Young, & Flewelling 1972 Naidoo 1974 Nelson & Warrington 1975 Mattis, French, & Rapin 1977 Doehring & Hoshko 1977 1978 Smith, Coleman, Dokecki, & Davis Sweeney & Rourke 1978 Rourke & Finlayson 1978 Omenn & Weber Description of Subtype(s) Verbally deficient readers Spatially deficient readers Auditory dyslexia Visual dyslexia Neurological dyslexia Genetic dyslexia Audiophonic dyslexia Visuospatial dyslexia Auditory memory subgroup Visual memory subgroup Combined subgroup Dysphonetic dyslexia Dyseidetic dyslexia Alexic Audiophonetic subtype Visual-spatial subtype Combined subtype Performance IQ > Verbal IQ Performance IQ < Verbal IQ Performance IQ ~ Verbal IQ Reading/spelling deficits Spelling deficits only Reading/spelling deficits Spelling deficits only Language disordered Articulatory and graphomotor dyscoordination Visual perception deficits Linguistic deficits Phonological deficits Intersensory integration deficits Visual perceptual deficits High IQ group Low IQ group Reading/spelling deficits Spelling deficits Reading, spelling, and arithmetic deficits Reading and spelling deficient group Arithmetic deficient group Auditory deficits Visual deficits Mixed subtype 37 2.
In R. M. Reitan & L. A. ), Clinical neuropsychology : Current status and applications. Washington, DC: Hemisphere. Boll, T. , & Barth, J. T. (1981). Neuropsychology of brain damage in children. In S. B. Filskov & T. J. ), Handbook of clinical neuropsychology. New York: Wiley. Boone, D. R. (1971). The voice and voice therapy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Borda, R. P. (1977). Visual evoked potentials to flash in the clinical evaluation of the optic pathways. In J. E. ), Visual evoked potentials in man: New developments.