Coupled 3D hydrodynamic models for submarine outfalls by Tobias Bleninger

By Tobias Bleninger

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After the wastefield establishment ambient conditions will control trajectory and dilution of the turbulent plume in the “far-field” (also called passive dispersal region), through passive diffusion due to ambient turbulence, and passive advection by the often time-varying, nonuniform, ambient velocity field. The flow is forced by tides and large-scale currents, wind stress at the surface, pressure gradients due to free surface gradients (barotropic) or density gradients (baroclinic), and the effect of the Earth's rotation (Coriolis force).

Alfredini and Roma (1999) showed that disinfection of preliminary treated effluents with chlorine reduces total coliform concentration by the order of 95%. 5 mg/l and a contact time of 30 min. (Alfredini and Roma, 1999). However, effluent chlorination is generally considered as harmful due to the possible generation of halogenated hydrocarbons, which are cancer-causing (Lattemann and Höpner, 2003). g. California - 14 - - Coastal wastewater discharges - (USA) or Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)) chlorine is not permitted for discharge.

Typical indicators are coliform bacteria indicating the probability of the existence of pathogens. Coliform bacteria also occur in faeces of warmblooded animals, thus their concentrations are roughly proportional to the degree of faecal pollution (WHO, 2000). They are none pathogenic organisms, which are easy to isolate and to quantify. Many countries adopted coliform bacteria as indicator of faecal contamination. , 2000). Nowadays not only total coliforms, but also especially faecal coliforms are measured to distinguish between faecal and other origin.

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