Cryptography: Cracking Codes (Intelligence and by Rob Curley

By Rob Curley

Starting with definitions of such simple phrases as cryptanalysis, encryption, and decryption, this creation from the Intelligence and Counterintelligence sequence emphasizes the purpose that cryptography is now part of daily company, no longer restricted to espionage and the army. The narrative explains how a variety of ciphers are developed, from the easiest to the main advanced, then covers uncomplicated ideas and kinds of cryptanalysis. After a quick review of cryptology via heritage, the survey concludes with a glance on the improvement of contemporary digital cryptology. evidence and ideas are good equipped and obviously awarded, yet assets will not be pointed out. Charts, photos, and sidebars upload visible kind, yet this learn is most fitted for the intense pupil, no longer the informal browser. again topic encompasses a word list, a bibliography, and an index. Grades 9-12. --Linda Perkins

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Additional info for Cryptography: Cracking Codes (Intelligence and Counterintelligence)

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Because of the redundancy of the English language, only about 25 symbols of ciphertext are required to permit the cryptanalysis of monoalphabetic substitution ciphers, which makes them a popular source for recreational cryptograms. The explanation for this weakness is that the frequency distributions of symbols in the plaintext and in the ciphertext are identical, only the symbols having been relabeled. In fact, any structure or pattern in the plaintext is preserved intact in the ciphertext, so that the cryptanalyst’s task is an easy one.

One form of transposition (permutation) that was widely used depends on an easily remembered key word for identifying the route in which the columns of a rectangular matrix are to be read. For example, using the key word AUTHOR and ordering the columns by the lexicographic order of the letters in the key word 16 Cipher Systems In decrypting a route cipher, the receiver enters the ciphertext symbols into the agreed-upon matrix according to the encryption route and then reads the plaintext according to the original order of entry.

A cryptosystem satisfying conditions 1–4 is called asymmetric for equally obvious reasons. There are symmetric cryptosystems in which the encryption and decryption keys are not the same—for example, matrix transforms of the text in which one key is a nonsingular (invertible) matrix and the other its inverse. Even though this is a twokey cryptosystem, since it is easy to calculate the inverse to a non-singular matrix, it does not satisfy condition 3 and is not considered to be asymmetric. Since in an asymmetric cryptosystem each user has a secrecy channel from every other user to him (using his public key) and an authentication channel from him to all other users (using his secret key), it is possible to achieve both secrecy and authentication using superencryption.

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