Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology by Ellen G. Strauss, James H. Strauss (auth.), M. Cooper, P. H.

By Ellen G. Strauss, James H. Strauss (auth.), M. Cooper, P. H. Hofschneider, H. Koprowski, F. Melchers, R. Rott, H. G. Schweiger, P. K. Vogt, R. Zinkernagel (eds.)

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The capsid is enveloped by a cell-derived lipid bilayer containing two glycoproteins (HN and F) and an internal nonglycosylated polypeptide (M) (Choppin and Compans 1975). Three genera have been distinguished on the basis of morphological differences and the activities of the HN protein: the paramyxoviruses, the morbilliviruses, and the pneumoviruses. Paramyxovirus HN protein has both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities, morbillivirus HN has hemagglutinin activity only, and the comparable polypeptide in pneumoviruses has neither activity (Choppin and Compans 1975).

1981; Rezaian and Jackson 1981). The two virus groups are distinguished from one another by the fact that nepoviruses contain only a single species of coat protein of molecular weight 55-60 K (Chu and Francki 1979), while all comovirus particles consist of icosahedral shells containing equal numbers of two polypeptide species of molecular weights 22 K and 42 K (Matthews 1982). Both M RNAs and B RNAs of nepoviruses and comoviruses have a 5'-VPg of about 4 K in size, which is necessary for infection for nepoviruses (Chu et al.

Leader RNAs are found in vivo in two forms: plus strand leaders (47 nucleotides complementary to the extreme 3' terminus of the genomic RNA) and, in much smaller amounts, minus strand leaders (46 nucleotides complementary to the 3' end of the antigenome) (Leppert et al. 1979). This theory suggests that near the end of the sequence of either leader there is a choice point and a termination signal. If the concentration of N protein is low, termination of plus strand leader ensues, the leader is removed, and transcription begins.

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