Defending the U.S. Air Transportation System Against by National Research Council, Division on Engineering and

By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Materials Advisory Board, Committee on Assessment of Security Technologies for Transportation

Traditionally, so much terrorist assaults on civilian ambitions have concerned using firearms or explosives, and present protecting suggestions are geared toward combating assaults perpetrated by means of such potential. besides the fact that, using the nerve agent sarin in 1995 to assault the Tokyo subway procedure, using the U.S. mail in 2001 to distribute letters containing anthrax spores, and the invention in 2004 of the organic toxin ricin in U.S. Senate workplace constructions in Washington, D.C., reveal that chemical and organic brokers were extra to terrorists' arsenals. assaults related to chemical/biological brokers are of significant difficulty, not just as a result of the capability for mass casualties but additionally simply because there isn't any procedure or know-how fielded at the present time that could reply properly to this risk. because the usa and different international locations re-evaluate the safety measures they've got in position to avoid or protect opposed to such assaults, the hazards to the air transportation approach as a prime objective develop into transparent. protecting the U.S. Air Transportation procedure opposed to Chemical and organic Threats is an exploration of protecting techniques that may be used to guard air transportation areas (specifically, airport terminals and plane) opposed to assault with chemical or organic brokers and makes innovations with appreciate to the position of TSA in enforcing those thoughts.

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S. AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM AGAINST CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL THREATS human monitors were provided with technological backup. 8 The issue will be the optimum allocation of function between humans and algorithms to maximize POD while minimizing PFA. Neither humans nor algorithms alone are completely effective for these purposes; hybrid systems typically produce better performance. Critique of Detection-Based Defensive Strategies As outlined above, a critical parameter determining the value of a detection-based strategy for defense against chemical/biological attacks is response time.

In the case of an attack involving a slow-acting agent, the non-detection-based strategy would begin to mitigate the impact of the attack immediately by continuously removing biological aerosol particles from the air, as illustrated in Figure 3-4. This approach would bypass the response time delay of a detection-based approach associated with a biological assay, alarm resolution, and response decision making. Neither strategy would prevent the exposure of individuals in the immediate vicinity of the agent release site;14 how13Evaluating costs (and benefits) and making the comparisons among alternative approaches must be an integral part of the process of selecting specific means and strategies, but such comparisons are beyond the scope of this report.

Recommendation 4: Given the limitations of sensor- and assay-based chemical/biological agent detection and identification technologies, the Transportation Security Administration should pursue a baseline defensive strategy against chemical/biological attacks that does not depend solely on the technological detection of threat agents to initiate action. , cockpits, flightcontrol towers, emergency-response centers); and • Continuous air treatment to neutralize and/or remove agents or contaminants.

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