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Additional resources for Epistemology and Spiritual Authority - The development of epistemology and logic in the old Nyaya and the Buddhist school of epistemology
Utpattidharmakatvad iti. utpattidharmakam anityam drstam iti, 'The reason is that which demonstrates [or] shows the property that is to be proved through similarity with the example; the reason is the verbal expression of the fact that the [particular property now occurring in the subject] is the probans, after it is remembered that the property [the probans] occurs in the subject and after it is remembered that it [also] occurred in the example. [As in the illustrative syllogism: sound is non-eternal] because it possesses the property of production [ie of being produced].
If we remember this, and after a while we see some smoke but no fire, we may infer the presence there of fire on the grounds of smoke. In short, we see thing A and thing B connected, the connexion being that of property-bearer and property. When at a certain time we see thing B alone, we infer thing A to be present as well. In the case of smoke and fire, smoke is considered to be the property of fire. One might question the admissibility of these substitutions, but consider the following use made by Paksilasvamin of the terms property, linga and property-bearer, lingin.
In the illustrative syllogism, 'the property of production1 serves as probans; 'being non-eternal1 is the probandum. Whatever is produced is acknowledged by all to be ephemeral, noneternal. The only logical connexion between probans and probandum, according to Paksilasvamin, is the fact that both are always seen (drsta) together in the commonly ac- 23 knowledged fact (drstanta) serving as example (udaharana). In order to be valid, the reason must not occur in examples in which the contrary of the probandum is found.