By United States Army Center of Military History
Because the finish of worldwide conflict II, civilian and army policymakers have sought to appreciate and increase the institutional tactics taken with the advance of contemporary guns structures. The power demands institutional, managerial, and organizational reform recommend that such projects haven't constantly been effortless nor truly outlined. This research is meant to carry a few ancient readability to that challenge by way of picking and reading the styles of organizational and institutional swap that guided in-house guns learn and improvement (R'D) over the process the previous six a long time. in particular, it information the historical past of guns R'D within the significant laboratories owned and operated by way of the military, the army, and the Air strength among 1945 and 2000. while, the monograph enhances a bigger multivolume ancient attempt that's presently interpreting the guidelines, strategies, and associations that guided the advance, construction, and procurement of significant weapon structures throughout the comparable interval. jointly they represent the on-going safety Acquisition heritage venture. the dep. of safety spends 1000's of billions of greenbacks each year to maintain U.S. forces built with state of the art weapon structures. examine and improvement is an integral part of this technique. it's the origin upon which all weapon platforms are outfitted as soon as requisites were set. even though they outsourced an important percentage in their study standards through the chilly conflict, the military, the military, and the Air strength additionally maintained broad in-house R'D institutions whose laboratories became out many items, starting from basic wisdom in physics, chemistry, and different clinical disciplines to accomplish prototype weapon platforms. What set the providers except each other, although, was once the level to which they controlled and arranged their respective R'D courses. within the military, examine, improvement, and construction proceeded along each other within the production arsenals that have been in non-stop operation because the starting of the 19th century, regardless of activities taken by means of a few military leaders to split those services organizationally as an important prerequisite to the advance of technologically complicated weapon structures. The army, in contrast, maintained a sharper organizational department of work among R'D and construction. validated in 1923, the Naval study Laboratory operated independently of the Navy’s fabric bureaus, the place, just like the Army’s arsenals, technological innovation had traditionally trusted the shut coordination of analysis, improvement, and creation. Created in 1947, the Air strength relied extra seriously than the military and the army at the inner most zone for brand spanking new wisdom and talents. however it additionally operated an intensive community of in-house laboratories, the administration and association of which periodically shifted among the extremes of independence from and subordination to the Air Force’s creation and procurement capabilities. all through all 3 providers, a disjunction occasionally existed among the formula of R'D rules on the administration point and the implementation of these guidelines within the laboratory. those relationships and different styles of organizational switch are highlighted within the learn and may support DoD acquisition managers to appreciate the present acquisition setting and effectively navigate their means via it as they search to make expert judgements approximately destiny guns improvement throughout an more and more large spectrum of actions
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Because the finish of worldwide warfare II, civilian and army policymakers have sought to appreciate and enhance the institutional approaches all for the advance of recent guns structures. The continual demands institutional, managerial, and organizational reform recommend that such initiatives haven't constantly been effortless nor essentially outlined.
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Additional resources for Sources of weapon systems innovation in the Department of Defense : the role of in-house research and development, 1945-2000
Stone, “Caltech Eases Transfer of Air Research Burden,” Aviation Week 66 (3 June 1957): 277–89. Also on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during this period, see Clayton R. Koppes, JPL and the American Space Program: A History of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982). The transfer of Redstone Arsenal to NASA is discussed in Michael J. Neufeld, “The End of the Army Space Program: Interservice Rivalry and the Transfer of the Von Braun Group to NASA, 1958–1959,” Journal of Military History 69 ( July 2005): 737–58.
S. Schweber, “The Empiricist Temper Regnant: Theoretical Physics in the United States, 1920–1950,” Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 17 (1986): 55–98; Katherine R. Sopka, Quantum Physics in America, 1920–1935 (New York: Arno Press, 1980); Charles Weiner, “A New Site for the Seminar: The Refugees and American Physics in the Thirties,” in The Intellectual Migration: Europe and America, 1930–1960, ed. : Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1969); Spencer R. Weart, “The Physics Business in America, 1919–1940: A Statistical Reconnaissance,” in The Sciences in the American Context: New Perspectives, ed.
58 R&D on recoilless rifles was transferred from Frankford Arsenal to Watervliet in the early 1960s. A History of Watervliet Arsenal, 1813 to Modernization 1982, 194–95. , 221. See also C. S. Maggio, “Since 1813, Watervliet Arsenal Has Pioneered the Logistics of Cannon Manufacture,” Army Logistician 5 (September-October 1973): 18–23. Autofrettage was not a new process. This method of pretreating the constituent materials of gun tubes and other critical components had been used in the manufacturing arsenals for decades.